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Microbial growth that renders final product unsuitable for its intented use

In paper/board machine processes microbes travel in general in the liquid phase. However, a number do get trapped in the forming sheet following the product through the process. High temperatures in the drying section kill most living, so called vegetative, cells. Not all microbial activity is destroyed by the heat of machine. Some microbes form entities called spores, which are not viable before they germinate into vegetative cells. These are a little bit like seeds of plants. The spores can travel intact into the final product and stay dormant in it for long times.
Several paper and board products, e.g. liquid packaging board have stringent demands for microbial quality. In these cases the final product that might otherwise be in specification can be unusable due to heavy spore contamination.